Experience Sitecore! | All posts tagged 'Best-practices'

Experience Sitecore!

Martin Miles on Sitecore

Infrastructure-as-Code: best practices you have to comply with

Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is an approach that involves describing infrastructure as code and then applying it to make the necessary changes. IaC does not dictate how exactly to write code, it just provides tools instead. A good examples are Terraform, Ansible and Kubernetes itself where you don't say what to do, rather than you dictate what state you want you infrastructure to get into.

Keep the infrastructure code readable. Your colleagues would be able to easily understand it, and, if necessary, add or test it. Looking to be an obvious point, it is quite often is forgotten, resulting in “write-only code” - the one can only be written, but cannot be read. Its author inclusive, and is unlikely to be able to understood what he wrote and figure out how it all works, even a few days afterward.

An example of a good practice is keeping all variables in a separate file. This is convenient because they do not have to be searched throughout the code. Just open the file and immediately get what you need.


Adhere to a certain style of writing code. As a good example, you may want keeping the code line length between 80-120 characters. If the lines are very long, the editor starts wrapping them. Line breaks destroy the overall view and interfere with the understanding of the code. One has to spend a lot of time just figuring out where the line starts and where it ends.

It's nice to have the coding style check automated, at least use by using the CI/CD pipeline for this. Such a pipeline could have a Lint step: a process of statistical analysis of what is written, helping to identify potential problems before the code is applied.


Utilize git repositories same way developers do. Saying that I mean developing new branches, linking branches to tasks, reviewing what has already been written, sending Pull Requests before making changes, etc.

Being a solo maintainer one may seem the listed actions to be redundant - it is a common practice when people just come and start committing. However, even if you have a small team, it could be difficult to understand who, when, and why made some corrections. As the project grows, such practices will increasingly help the understanding of what is happening and mess up the work. Therefore, it is worth investing some time into adopting some of the development practices to work with repositories.


Infrastructure as Code tools are typically associated with DevOps. As we know DevOps as specialists who not only deal with maintenance but also help developers work: set up pipelines, automate test launches, etc. - all the above also applies to IaC.

In Infrastructure as Code, automation should be applied: Lint rules, testing, automatic releases, etc. Having repositories with let's say Ansible or Terraform, but rolled out manually (by an engineer manually starting a task) is not that much good. Firstly, it is difficult to track who launched it, why, and at what moment. Secondly, it is impossible to understand how that worked out and draw conclusions.

With everything kept in the repository and controlled by an automatic CI/CD pipeline, we can always see when the pipeline was launched and how it performed. We can also control the parallel execution of pipelines, identify the causes of failures, quickly find errors, and much more.

You can often hear from maintainers that they do not test the code at all or just first run it somewhere on dev. It's not the best practice, because it does not give any guarantee that dev matches prod. In the case of Ansible or other configuration tools, standard testing could be something as:

  • launched a test on dev;
  • rolled on dev, but crashed with an error;
  • fixed this error;
  • once again, the test was not run because dev is already in the state to which they tried to bring it.

It seems that the error has been corrected, and you can roll on prod. What will happen to prod? It is always a matter of luck - hit or miss, guess or miss. If somewhere in the middle, something falls again, the error will be corrected and everything will be restarted.

But infrastructure code can and should be tested. At the same time, even if specialists know about different testing methods, they still cannot use them. The reason is that Ansible roles or Terraform files are written without the initial focus on the fact that they will need to be tested somehow.

In an ideal world, at the moment of writing a code developer is aware of what (else) needs to be tested. Accordingly, before starting to write a code, developer plans on how to test it, commonly know as TDD. Untested code is low-quality code.

The same exactly applies to infrastructure code: once written, you should be able to test it. Decent testing allows to reduce the number of errors and make it easier for colleagues who will finalize your roles on Ansible or Terraform files.


A few words about automation. A common practice when working with Ansible is that even if something could be tested, there is no automation to it. Usually, this is a case when someone creates a virtual machine, takes some role written by colleagues, and launches it. Afterward that person relizes the need to add certain new things to it - appends and launches again on the virtual machine. Then he realizes that even more changes are equired and also the current virtual machine has already been brought to some kind of state, so it needs to be killed, new virtual machine reinstantstiated and the role rolled over it. In case something does not work, this algorithm would have to be repeated until all errors are eliminated.

Usually, the human factor comes into a play, and after the N-th number of repetitions, it becomes too lazy deleting the VM and re-creating it again. Once everything seems to work exactly as it should (this time), so one seems could freeze the changes and roll into the prod environment. But reality is that errors could still occur, that is why automation is needed. When it works through automated pipelines and Pull Requests are used - it helps to identify bugs faster and prevent their re-appearance.

Things beginners get incorrect about Kubernetes

On start playing with Kubernetes, one may face with one of the biggest delusions considering the K8S will work in the same way for both the development or testing environment. 

But It won't!

When it comes to containers in general and Kubernetes specifically, there is a big difference between occasional runs in a labs-alike conditions and in full production lifecycle. That is similar to a difference between just starting an app and long term running it full security and reliability enabled.

Not a Kubernetes exclusive problem, but is true for the entire variety of containers and microservices. Spin-up a container comes as relative simple task, while scaling containers as containerized microservices in the production turns to be more complicated.

Although Kubernetes has alternatives, it has quickly become a de-facto standard for orchestration. However there is a difference between launching K8S in a sandbox compared to a full production environment.



Delusion #1. Running containers with Kubernetes in the development or testing environment ensures that your operational needs will be satisfied.

The truth: the launch of Kubernetes in the development or testing environment allows cutting the corners, simplify things and not to bother with the operational load, which one faces when going live to Prod. Ops and safety considerations will become major areas of differences between K8S running in prod and in the development / testing environments. Failing a cluster in the labs conditions does not bring any losses.

For me it looks like a compromise between an agility and reliability: devs use containers to achieve flexibility while working with apps when developing and testing the code does its purpose. While the ops need to provide reliability, scaling, performance and safety provided by a sustainable, industry-proven platform. They are looking for a deployment automation for the clusters to ensure the repeatability and consistency. It also helps when restoring the system.

Versioning is also critical for operations. As far as possible, you need enabling versioning everywhere, including services deployment configuration, policies and infrastructure (applying the infrastructure-as-a-code approach). That results in environments becoming repeatable. As a good practice, avoid "latest" image versions, in order to avoid configuration drift effect.


Delusion #2. Both reliability and security got provided with Kubernetes

In reality: when using Kubernetes at non-production environments only, most unlikely reliability and security got provided, at least initially. Do not get discouraged, you will be there: it's a matter of designing an architecture before switching to the Prod.

Obviously, performance, scaling, availability and safety requirements are much higher in prod environments. This It is important to plan these requirements for the deployment of K8S into architecture, as well as build scaling and security plans into Helm-charts, etc.

But how could running a cluster in dev/testing environments lead to a false confidence?

This is common for non-production environments having all network connections open. It is acceptable that any service can refer to any other service: open connections are the defaults for Kubernetes. However such an approach is an evil practice for production environments and can lead to downtime. It also exposes larger areas for potential attack and increases threats to business.

When it comes to containers / microservices, one needs spending bigger effort for creating a highly available and reliable system. Orchestration itself helps a lot but isn't a "silver bullet", same applies to security. We will have to work hard to protect Kubernetes and reduce the surface of the attack. It is very important using RBAC with minimal privileges and enforce network policies, leaving only those channels services indeed use.

Also vulnerabilities of container images can rapidly turn ops into a critical state, while on development / testing environments this danger may absent at all. Pay attention to the base images used for building your containers: as far as possible, use trusted official images, or build your own. The last thing you want happening for your Kubernetes cluster is helping someone mining crypto coins.

It is recommended to refer to the security of containers as a ten-level system covering the container stack (host and registries), as well as questions related to the life cycle of containers (for example, API management). 


Delusion #3. Orchestration makes scaling a formality

Although Kubernetes considered being a completely necessary tool for scaling containers, it will be delusted to think that orchestration immediately sorts out scaling needs for the production environment. The volume of data at live environments is times more, please also keep in mind that monitoring may also need scaling. With increasing volumes, everything changes. 

It is impossible to ensure all K8S components implementing the interfaces correctly until you spin-up the prod: determining Kubernetes "working normally", and the API server and other controlled components get scaled according to your needs.

As I say, the development and testing environments go much easier. In local environments it is easy skipping basics like defining the right resources and restrictions for requests. Avoiding that can collapse you prod once later. 

Scaling the cluster both directions is a good example when the task goes easy locally, being clearly complicated at production: scaling prod clusters is more difficult than clusters for development/testing.

While Kubernetes makes it relatively simple scaling horizontally, DevOps still need keeping in mind some nuances, especially when it comes to maintaining services live when scaling an infrastructure. It is crucial to ensure that the main services, as well as a system monitoring and security alerts, were distributed across the cluster nodes and do work with stateful volumes so that data not being lost on scaling down.

Again, it all comes to proper planning and resources available. You need not just understand your needs for scaling when planning but most importantly - test them. Your production environment must be capable for handling much higher loads.


Delusion #4. Kubernetes works everywhere equally that same

In reality: differences in work in another environment may vary similar to those differences between running Kubernetes on the developer's laptop and prod server. The reality is that there may be serious differences depending on the vendor .Many believe that if the K8S works locally, it will work in any operational environment. 

Local environments commonly miss important components required by prod environments: monitoring, logging, certificate management and credentials. You need to keep that in mind, as that is another problem raised from a difference between prod  and development/testing environments.

However, that isn't Kubernetes exclusively, but applies to containers/microservices in general, especially in multicloud and hybrid cloud setups. Those Kubernetes implementations are more complicated than it seems initially, as many of the mandatory services are proprietary, like load balancing and firewalls. A container that works well locally may work unprotected (may not start at all) in the cloud with another setup of tools. Therefore, SERVICE MESH technologies like Istio attract so much attention. They guarantee the availability wherever your container works, so you do not need to think about infrastructure - which is the main reason for using containers.

I hope you can reach safer and more reliable production environments with Kubernetes keeping the above in mind!

Sitecore Cheat Sheets

While working with Sitecore, you have to keep in mind plenty of things, few of them not easy to remember. To simplify my life as a developer, I have created a compilation of various cheat sheets for various aspects of work with Sitecore. Having that printed on standard A4 papers I found that not quite convenient, and decided to re-create in more convenient format. Then I thought why not to issue that in a portable book format, and share with hundreds of people it may help.



Table of Content:

  • Sitecore Item API
  • ULR parameters
  • Sitecore queries
  • Sitecore PowerShell
  • Content Search API
  • Admin folder pages
  • Security
  • Databases
  • Mongo
  • Configuration
  • Core database
  • Rules engine
  • Helix / Habitat
  • Razor view extensions
  • Glass Mapper
  • Azure
  • Going live
  • ReSharper most used hotkeys
  • IIS and AS.NET
  • Icons in Sitecore
This is bare minimum I have already completed, however, if there are more of interesting topic - please let me know.

    Sitecore Boilerplate - the repository of best practices all at the same place

    I decided to create an ultimate "boilerplate" solution for Sitecore, implementing all the best Sitecore practices in one place, well documented and cross-linked with the support on this blog.

    As a multi-language website with Experience Editor (ex. Page Editor) support utilizing with Glass Mapper, Lucene indexes and test-driven codebase and much more working well all together - it will be a perfect place for newbies to familiarize themselves with Sitecore platform. It aims also to simplify work of more senior Sitecore developers in terms of quickly searching for desired features and grabbing them into their working solutions.

    The project originated out of my R&D activities as I decided it would be beneficial to share my workouts with Sitecore community. Any suggestions, comments and criticism are highly welcome!

    List of the features I desire to supply into Sitecore boilerplate:

    • Support for Page Editor
    • Usage of Glass Mapper for ORM purposes
    • Unit testable code
    • Synchronization of user-editable content from CD environment to CM and further re-publish to the rest of CDs
    • Support for multi-language environment
    • Custom Lucene indexes
    • Custom personalisation of components and data
    • Workflows based on user permissions
    • Make all mentioned above working together as a solid and stable website
    • Implement new Sitecore 8 marketing features on top of that

    .. for the moment I have planned and implemented several of mentioned features as a starting point, so it is coming soon on GitHub and further blog posts here.